Asexual reproduction in plants.

Reproduction is an important life process which helps in the continuity of life on the Earth. All living beings reproduce either sexually or asexually. This article deals with asexual reproduction in plants.

Asexual reproduction

New plants are obtained from the parent plant without the production of seeds or spores. Such a method of reproduction in plants is called asexual reproduction.

Vegetative propagation is a type of asexual reproduction by which plants reproduce through their vegetative parts like the stem, roots, leaves and buds. There are different ways of vegetative propagation exhibited by various plants.

Types of vegetative propagation

1. Cutting: In this type of reproduction, a small piece of a branch from a plant is cut and buried in the soil. This small piece of branch is known as cutting. On watering this piece of cutting regularly, new leaves grow at the nodes of the stem and finally it grows into a new plant. E.g., rose plants reproduce through cutting.

2. Propagation through stem buds: The buds in the axil (an axil is the point where a leaf is attached to the node of the stem) of the leaves are called vegetative buds and these buds are capable of growing into new plants under favorable conditions. For example, the scars on a potato are called the eyes. When a potato is cut into pieces, each piece with an eye, and buried in the soil, each piece grows into a new individual plants. The other plants that can be grown through budding are ginger and turmeric.

3. Propagation through leaf buds: Unlike potato a Bryophyllum plant has vegetative buds on the leaf margins. When these leaves fall in the moist soil, each bud on the leaf margin grows into a new plants under favorable conditions.

4. Through roots: Some plants like sweet potato, Dahlia and lily are capable of reproducing through their roots.

5. Through detached parts: In some plants when the plants parts get detached from the main body and fall in the soil, then each detached part is capable of growing into a new plant under favorable conditions. For e.g., cactus plant.

6. Budding: This type of propagation is generally exhibited by yeast which is a unicellular (single-celled) organism. In this type of reproduction a small bulb-like projection grows on the outer side of the cell body. This is called the bud which grows, gets detached from the parent body on maturing and this detached matured bud becomes an yeast cell.

7. Fragmentation: As the name indicates, in this kind of reproduction the plant body cuts itself into two or three pieces and each piece, called a fragment, is capable of giving rise to a new plant. Algae that grows in the stagnant water bodies multiplies or reproduces through fragmentation.

8. Spore formation: This type of reproduction is seen in fungus which is a non-green plant (plant that lacks the green coloring pigment-chlorophyll). A spore is an asexual reproductive body with a hard protective coat which is capable of withstanding unfavorable conditions and hence it can survive for a longer period. When the conditions are favorable, the spore germinates and develops into a new non-green plant. The other plants that reproduce through spore formation are mosses and ferns.


Author: Kishan Kumar Thakur20 Sep 2013 Member Level: Silver   Points : 8

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Developmental Biology
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Author: Kishan Kumar Thakur07 Oct 2013 Member Level: Silver   Points : 10 Kishan kumar thakur of Sursand BIHAR INDIA. And explane about Sexual Reproduction. Sexual reproductionis a process that creates a new organism by combining the geneticmaterial of two organisms; it occurs both in eukaryotes [ 1 ] [ 2 ]and in prokaryotes. [ 3 ]A key similarity between bacterial sex(bacterial conjugation) and eukaryotic sexis that DNAoriginating from two different individuals (parents) join up so that homologoussequences are aligned with each other, and this is followed by exchange of genetic information (a process called genetic recombination). After the new recombinant chromosome is formed, it is passed on to progeny.
On the other hand, bacterial conjugation, a type of transfer of DNA between two bacteria, is often regarded as equivalent of sexual reproduction because the mechanics are similar. [ 4 ]This is because bacterial conjugation is controlled by plasmid genes that are adapted for spreading copies of the plasmid between bacteria. The infrequent integration of a plasmid into a host bacterial chromosome, and the subsequent transfer of a part of the host chromosome to another cell do not appear to be bacterial adaptations. [ 3 ] [ 5 ]
In contrast, bacterial transformationcan be regarded as a form of sex in bacteria. [ 3 ] [ 6 ]Bacterial transformation is a complex process encoded by numerous bacterial genes, and is clearly a bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer. This process occurs naturally in at least 40 bacterial species. [ 7 ]For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state referred to as competence (see Natural competence). Sexual reproduction in early single-celled eukaryotes may have evolved from bacterial transformation. [ 8 ]
Sexual reproduction is the primary method of reproduction for the vast majority of macroscopic organisms, including almost all animalsand plants. The evolution of sexual reproductionis a major puzzle. The first fossilizedevidence of sexual reproduction in organisms such as eukaryotes is in the Stenianperiod, about 1 to 1.2 billion years ago. [ 9 ]There are two main processes during sexual reproduction in eukaryotes: meiosis, involving the halving of the number of chromosomes; and fertilization, involving the fusion of two gametesand the restoration of the original number of chromosomes. During meiosis, the chromosomes of each pair usually cross overto achieve homologous recombination. Evolutionary thought proposes several explanations for why sexual reproduction developed and why it is maintained. These reasons include fighting the accumulationof deleterious mutations, increasing rate of adaptation to changing environments [ 10 ](see the red queen hypothesis), dealing with competition (see the tangled bank hypothesis) or as an adaptation for repairing DNA damage. [ 3 ] [ 6 ] [ 8 ]The maintenance of sexual reproduction has been explained by theories that work at several different levels of selection, though some of these models remain controversial. New models presented in recent years, however, suggest a basic advantage for sexual reproduction in slowly reproducing, complex organisms, exhibiting characteristics that depend on the specific environment that the given species inhabit, and the particular survival strategies that they employ.

Author: Adesola Adeyeye10 Oct 2013 Member Level: Gold   Points : 0

This is a very good resource posted here. This will enable the students to actually know the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction in plants.

Author: Adesola Adeyeye10 Oct 2013 Member Level: Gold   Points : 0

This is a very good resource posted here. This will enable the students to actually know the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction in plants.

Author: Adesola Adeyeye11 Oct 2013 Member Level: Gold   Points : 0

This is a very good resource posted here. This will enable the students to actually know the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction in plants.

Author: Kishan Kumar Thakur14 Oct 2013 Member Level: Silver   Points : 8

I'am kishan kumar thakur and i sudides intrance of medical so i write some about biology............ Those per
son intreasted this please write review.
Father's of Biology :-
1. Father of Biology , Embryology&Zoology - ARISTOTLE .
2. Father of Anatomy - ANDREAS VESALIUS
3. Father of Comparative Anatomy - George Cuvier
4. Father of Microscopic Anatomy - Morcello Malpighi
5. Father of Histology - Francois Bichat
6. Father of Modern Embryology - Karl Ernst Von Baer
7. Father of Physiology - Aristotle
8. Father of Modern Physiology , Blood Circulation - William Harvey
9. Father of Gastric Physiology - William Beaumont
10. Father of Stress Physiology - Hans Selye
11. Father of Conditioned Reflexes - Pavlov
12. Father of ECG - Einthoven
13. Father of Biochemistry - Carl Alexander Neuberg
14. Father of ATP cycle - Lipmann
15. Father of Modern Pathology , Cellular Pathology - Rudolf Virchow
16. Father of Pharmacology - Oswald Schmiedeberg
17. Father of Indian Pharmacology - Sri Ram Nath Chopra
18. Father of Chemotherapy - Paul Ehlrich
19. Father of Antibiotics - Alexander Fleming
20. Father of Microbiology - Louis Pasteur
21. Father of Microscopy - Anton van Leeuwenhoek
22. Father of Bacteriology - Robert Koch
23. Father of Virology - Stanley
24. Father of Mycology - Micheli
25. Father of Parasitology - Platter
26. Father of Immunolgy - Edward Jenner
27. Father of Tissue Culture - Harrison
28. Father of Legal Medicine , Forensic Psychiatry - Paulus Zacchias
29. Father of Toxicology - Mathieu Orfila
30. Father of Epidemiology - John Snow
31. Father of Medicine , Western Medicine - Hippocrates
32. Father of Endocrinology - Addison
33. Father of Transfusion Medicine , Blood Groups - Karl Landsteiner
34. Father of Modern Surgery - Ambroise Pare
35. Father of Antiseptic Surgery - Joseph Lister
36. Father of Indian Surgery - Susruta
37. Father of Modern Facial Plastic Surgery - Jacques Joseph
38. Father of Modern Neurosurgery - Harvey Cushing
39. Father of Indian Paediatrics - Dr. George Coelho
40. Father of Modern Psychiatry - Philippe Pine

Author: Kishan Kumar Thakur25 Oct 2013 Member Level: Silver   Points : 8

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